Gaucher disease


Description

Gaucher disease (MIM 230800) is an autosomal recessive condition caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and the resultant accumulation of its undegraded substrate, glucosylceramide, in the lysosomes. Biochemical enzyme analysis confirms a clinical diagnosis in affected individuals. The disease can be broadly divided into three clinical forms on the basis of the absence (type I) or presence (types II and III) of primary CNS involvement although there is actually likely to be a clinical continuum. Type II is considered to be the most severe form and type I the least severe. All forms are characterised by hepatosplenomegaly and anaemia with bone involvement common in types I and III. Treatment involves bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy. Type I is the most prevalent form and is particularly common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population with an incidence of ~1/855 individuals. Type I shows a broad spectrum of severity ranging from severely affected individuals to asymptomatic, presenting in childhood or adulthood. Types II and III are more rare. All three subtypes are caused by mutations in the GBA gene; the phenotypic heterogeneity correlates to some extent with the different nature of the mutations identified. The GBA gene (1q21) comprises 12 exons. Although many novel mutations are known, there are �common� mutations within the gene, particularly in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

Also known as

glucocerebrosidase deficiency; GBA deficiency; acid beta-glucosidase deficiency; nonneuronopathic Gaucher disease type I; acute neuronopathic type II; subacute neuronopathic type III


Request a test

When requesting this test please use the referral form provided. Please also refer to any additional information provided for this test.


Additional information

Clinically affected patients should have their diagnosis confirmed by biochemical analysis; such patients may then be referred for mutation analysis. Carrier testing can be offered to adult relatives of affected patients once a disease causing mutation has been identified. Testing is offered for the following recurrent GBA mutations which account for ~86% mutations in the Ashkenazi population and 70% of mutations in the Non Jewish UK population. Analysis is carried out by PCR & restriction enzyme digest, ARMS PCR and nested PCR analysis: p.Asn409Ser, p.Leu483Pro, p.Arg502Cys, p.Asp448His, c.84dupG, c.(1263_1319)del55 and c.115+1G>A. Download additional information >


Sending address

Great Ormond Street Hospital NE Thames Regional Genetics Service Laboratories
Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children
Barclay House
37 Queen Square
London
WC1N 3BH

Laboratory service

Genetics


Sample requirements

1ml EDTA neonates, 5ml EDTA adults


Reference range

Not applicable


Turnaround time

20 days


Disease / group

GBA


Cost

Upon request


Call in advance?

Prenatals must be arranged in advance, through a Clinical Genetics department if possible.


Genetics

The Genetics Laboratories provide an extensive range of Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics diagnostic testing services.

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